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The card system: Clarified Technological Ascendancy effect
''Technology'' in Stellaris is divided into 3 research areas with each area corresponding with one of the research resources: {{iconify|Engineering|21px}}, {{iconify|Physics|21px}} and {{iconify|Society|21px}}. Additionally, each of the ~300 techs belongs to one of 12 subcategories divided between the areas (most appearing pre-dominantly in one area though not exclusively).
== Research areas & fields ==
[[File:UI tech.png|right|thumb|400px|Technology interface. Every slot here can have one research project active at a time and every research area has its own slot.]]
There are three different main ''research areas'' in-game, with each area corresponding with one of the research resources. Additionally, each research area has multiple subcategories, for a total of 12 such subcategories, and every tech belongs to one of these subcategories.
== The card system ==
[[File:Card system.png|thumb|400px|The "card" system. Every time a research project is to be initiated, the game will draw a hand of cards like this one from which the player then can pick one technology to research.]]
Although the underlying technology system is based on the familiar ''tech tree'' structure, it does away with its standard interaction/presentation in favor of the ''card shuffle'' approach. This injects a semi-random element into research, making it somewhat less predictable as well as more non-linear.
Every time the player meets the requirements for a given technology to become obtainable, the technology in question is added into the main "card deck" and will then have a chance of appearing in the "card hand" whenever the game draws a new hand for the player to pick from. There are two basic parameters affecting a tech's chances of appearing in a given card hand:
* ''Tiers'' - Technologies are divided into 6 levels (T0 to T5) of advancement. Higher tier technologies require obtaining a certain number of technologies from the preceding tier in the same area of research (set at 6 for all tiers<ref>See {{path|common/technology/tier/00_tier.txt}} for details.</ref>) before they become available as research alternatives. * ''Weight'' - A base value denoting the ''relative'' chance (out of all the valid options) of a particular technology to be drawn as an alternative. This may be further modified by an empire's composition (ethics, civics, and etc.) and its current state (scientist's traits, past tech, and etc.).
To further increase variation, a tech which appeared as an alternative in the previous card hand will have its weight set to 0 in the next prompt.
As a general rule of thumb, the more advanced a technology is, the lower its weight (and the higher its cost). Systematically important techs (e.g. terraforming) have a higher weight (typically between 150% and double normal) to help ensure empires get a chance to research them, whereas {{tech|rare|rare technologies}} have significantly lower weight (typically one-eighth normal without the matching expertise). Some factors increase the weight of rare techs:<!-- These factors are omitted from [[Society research]] because they're (almost) universal. Don't put other modifiers here e.g. expertise because they vary. -->* Being in a level 3 or higher [[File:Federation research.png|21px]] Research Cooperative [[federation]] with another member who knows the tech doubles the weight.* The [[File:Ap technological ascendancy.png|21px]] Technological Ascendancy ascension perk increases the weight of {{tech|rare|rare technologies}} by 50%.
; === Example===Let's assume the game draws a card hand of 3 techs: {{icon|Armored Torpedoes tech|21px}} Armored Torpedoes, {{icon|Autocannons tech|21px}} Autocannons, and {{iconify|Orillium ExtractionExotic Gas Refining|21px}}. Additionally, the lead engineering scientist has a {{iconify|Propulsion|21px}} field expertise (matching Armored Torpedoes) and the previous card hand had {{icon|Autocannons tech|21px}} Autocannons as an available option.
<math>\text{Total weight} = \text{Armored Torpedoes weight}\, \cdot\, \text{expertise bonus} +\, \text{Autocannons weight}\, +\, \text{Orillium Extraction Exotic Gas Refining weight}</math>
<math>\text{Total weight} = 70 75 \cdot 1.25\, +\, \frac{75}{2}\, +\, 180 170 = 8793.5 75 +\, 37.5 +\, 180 170 = 305301.25</math>
If a these were the only three valid techs and only one tech were to be picked at randomdrawn, then each tech's chances of being drawn would be '''2829.71%''', '''12.35%''', and '''5956.4%''' respectively(rounded to 1 decimal place). Realistically there are usually many more valid picks and so the probability of picking any given tech is significantly lower than the figures given here.
=== Research alternatives ==={{SVersion|2.57}}Each card hand drawn will contain 3 research alternatives. This , which may, however, be further increased by 1 for each of the following:
* {{icon|edict}} Scientific Revolution unity ambition
* {{icon|self-evolving logic|24px}} Self-Evolving Logic technology
* [[File:Tradition_discovery_science_division.png|24px]] Science Division / Mindlink / Research Path Optimization discovery tradition
* {{iconify|Natural Neural Network}} civic
* {{iconify|Static Research Analysis}} civic
* {{iconiconify|self-evolving logic|24pxResearch Cooperative}} Self-Evolving Logic technology* [[File:Tradition_discovery_science_division.png|24px]] Science Division / Mindlink / Research Path Optimization discovery traditionlevel 2
Additionally, some research cards may be gained as ''permanent alternatives''. They appear below the regular alternatives and are distinguished from them by a {{tech|acquire|golden}} border surrounding the tech card's bezel. These alternatives are usually acquired (along with some partial progress) through post-battle debris analysis, from special projects or [[event]] chains. These options will always appear as available options when drawing a new card hand and will remain as such until completed.
If need be, it is possible to change an on-going research project at any point - without incurring penalties - in order to continue researching it at a later time. It is important to note, however, that the saved progress does ''not'' scale with changes occurring to technology costs (for better or for worse). This tends to lead to the tech's completion percentage getting lower as the empire continues to expandfurther exceed its administrative capacity.
As opposed to a permanent alternative, there is no guarantee that the technology in question will appear in the next card hand drawn.
{{bonus table|Society output|collapse=yes}}
=== Stored research =={{SVersion|2.5}}=
Research output which is not being used for research at the time is being accumulated as ''stored research''. Alternatively, it may also include research resources gained from other avenues such as debris analysis, anomalies, events, and etc.
== Research speed ==
''Research speed'' represents a given expertise in a particular research area or field leading to shortened research time of related technologies.
The most immediate sources of research speed modifiers are the 3 lead [[scientists]]. As the applied bonus depends on a scientist's skill level and overall traits, it is recommended to assign newly recruited scientists to command a [[science ship]]. Scientists on exploration duty tend to gain experience faster and, if one is in luck, they may also gain a new trait beneficial to research while leveling up.
The following table details the all-encompassing ; ExampleAn empire is a {{iconify|Materialist|21px}} and produces {{icon|eng|21px}} {{green|+24}} Engineering research speed modifiers a month. It has a lead engineering scientist with a {{iconify|Propulsion|21px}} field expertise while the one below lists limited scope modifiers:researching {{bonus tableicon|Research speedArmored Torpedoes tech|collapse=yes21px}}Armored Torpedoes. <math>\text{Perceived research production}= 24\, \cdot\, (1\, +\, 0.05\, +\, 0.15)\, = 28.8 </math>
'''Note:''' A research area without an acting lead scientist receives a penalty to research speed. Research Speed can be affected by the following:{| class="mildtable plainlist mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"! style="minSource! Research Speed|-| {{icon|edict}} Scientific Revolution ambition| {{green|+20%}}|-width: 30px;" | {{icon|edict}} Research speedGrants edict| {{green|+10%}}|-| {{icon|edict}} Nanite Actuators edict| {{green|+10%}}! style="min|-width: 310px;" | {{icon|agenda}} Scientific Leap agenda| {{green| Limited scope modifiers+10%}}! style="min|-width: 120px;" | {{icon|tradition}} Discovery tradition tree finish| {{green| Scope+10%}}
| [[File:Ap technological ascendancy.png|24px]] Technological Ascendancy ascension perk| {{green|+3010%}}|* {{icon|tradition}} Domination tree completion* (''technology sharing'' with vassals)| Situation specific
| {{iconify|Fanatic Materialist}} ethic| {{green|+2510%}}|* [[File:Diplomacy alliance.png|24px]] [[Research agreement]]* (towards unknown tech already researched by the other party)| Situation specific
| {{iconify|Materialist}} ethic| {{green|+205%}}|-* | {{iconify|Devouring SwarmAdministrative AI|24px}}technology* | {{iconifygreen|Introspective+5%}}* {{icon|edict}} Engineering Research Grants-* | {{iconiconify|Positronic AI|edict24px}} Physics Research Grantstechnology* | {{icongreen|edict+5%}} Society Research Grants|-* | {{iconify|BiologyErudite}}ruler trait* | {{iconifygreen|Engineering+5%}}* |-| [[File:R galaxy.png|24px]] Miniature Galaxy relic| {{iconifygreen|Engineering+5%}}* |-| [[File:Tech science nexus.png|24px]] Science Nexus megastructure (stage I)| {{iconifygreen|Physics+5%}}* |-| [[File:Tech science nexus.png|24px]] Science Nexus megastructure (stage II)| {{iconifygreen|Society+10%}}
| [[File:Tech science nexus.png|24px]] Science Nexus megastructure (completed)
| {{green|+15%}}
* Field expertise traits
* (one trait per corresponding field)
| Field specific
| [[File:Enclaves flag curator.png|24px]] Curator Insight empire modifier
| {{green|+10%}}
* {{icon|edict}} Improved Energy Initiative
* {{icon|edict}} Improved Working Environment
* {{icon|edict}} Master's Teachings: Philosophical Mindset
* {{icon|Industry}} {{icon|Materials}} fields
* {{icon|Biology}} {{icon|Statecraft}} fields
* {{iconify|Society}}
| {{icon|lev}} The Singularity Procesor empire modifier
| {{green|+5%}}
| ''"Spectral Residue Studies"'' -| {{icon|lev}} The Mirror of Knowledge empire modifier| {{iconifygreen|+10%}}|-| {{icon|fed}} Spurred by the Past empire modifier| {{green|+5%}}|-| {{icon|fed}} Full Circle empire modifier| {{green|+5%}}|-| [[File:Resolution technological sanctions.png|24px]] Minor Research Sanctions| {{red|-5%}}|-| [[File:Resolution technological sanctions.png|24px]] Moderate Research Sanctions| {{red|-10%}}|-| [[File:Resolution technological sanctions.png|24px]] Major Research Sanctions| {{red|Physics-15%}}
; Example
An empire is a {{iconify|Materialist|21px}} and produces {{icon|eng|21px}} {{green|+24}} Engineering research a month. It has a lead engineering scientist with a {{iconify|Propulsion|21px}} field expertise while researching {{icon|Armored Torpedoes tech|21px}} Armored Torpedoes.
<math>\text{Perceived research production} = 24\, \cdot\, (1\, +\, 0.05\, +\, 0.15)\, = 28.8 </math>
'''Note:''' A research area without an acting lead scientist receives a penalty to research speed.
== Technology cost ==
As a game progresses, research option choices will begin to include progressively more advanced and correspondingly more expensive technologies.
Each technology has a ''base cost'' that applies as long as an empire does not exceed its Administrative Capacity. Once that happens, the research cost will be increased by {{red|0.34%}} for each point of exceeded Administrative Capacity.  This means that while overall an empire's research capabilities will increase with additional planets and systems, it will do so with increasingly diminishing returns for every new addition; Meaning, a larger empire will have to invest can be fixed by employing more resources than a smaller one to gain the same tech. This allows for empires of a somewhat differing size to keep a "relative" technological paritybureaucrats.
== Research progress ==
In general, ''research time'' can be summarized as the following formula:

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